Florida didn’t trigger the financial crisis within the National Flood Insurance Program.
In fact, over the past 35 years, the state’s property owners have helped prop up the program, paying four times more than what they have gotten back in claims.
The payback for all that financial help: About 270,000 Florida properties could face huge flood insurance rate hikes. That’s three times more than the next most-affected state, New Jersey.
more stunning. Anyone who has bought a rate-subsidized property after the new flood law was signed July 6, 2012, will have to pay the full rate for coverage after Oct. 1. That could be more than triple the price paid by the previous owner.
Pinellas County has more than 24,000 properties facing that kind of rate shock if they sell. Pinellas is No. 1 in the nation in that category, too.
Jeff Grady, president and CEO of the Florida Association of Insurance Agents, has heard anecdotes of $3,000 premiums that will jump to $12,000 for policies renewed after October; or $9,000 premiums soaring to $22,000.
“That makes the business owners or property owners just gasp,” Grady said. “Not only can’t they afford it, it really devalues the property.”
Chris Heidrick, owner of Heidrick and Co. Insurance in Sanibel, has tried to spread the word in his beachfront community. As a popular destination for second homes, Sanibel Island’s Lee County has the second-highest number of investor-owned properties being affected by the phaseout of flood insurance subsidies.
Heidrick is concerned spiraling rates will both dampen real estate sales and hurt small business.
“I’m concerned about ground-level offices and shopping centers and small businesses. The T-shirt shop near the beach,” he said. “The impacts are so far-reaching. This is not just impacting the rich people who have second homes.”
Officials with the Federal Emergency Management Association, which runs the flood program, have downplayed the impact. The phaseout of subsidies will affect fewer than 20 percent of flood policyholders, FEMA said. Even fewer will see rates triple in a year, officials said.
Elsewhere in Tampa Bay, 14,484 Hillsborough County properties could lose their subsidized rates over time. In Pasco, the number is 11,413; in Hernando, 1,044; in Citrus, 2,882.
“The numbers aren’t hitting people’s mailboxes yet, but once they do, you’ll need a special edition of the Tampa Bay newspaper” to explain it all again, said David Thompson, a longtime staff instructor with Florida Association of Insurance Agents.
The Katrina effect
Just like Hurricane Andrew was the wake-up call for windstorm insurance in 1992, Hurricane Katrina had the same effect on flood insurance.
The storm plowed through the north Gulf Coast in 2005, leaving behind $16 billion in flood claims, primarily in Louisiana. The hurricane pushed the National Flood Insurance Program $18 billion in debt, forcing it to borrow from the government to stay in business.
To keep the flood program solvent for the long term, Congress overwhelmingly passed the 2012 Biggert-Waters act. The idea: focus the biggest rate hikes on investor-owned homes and older homes that have been paying sub-market rates for decades.
Louisiana’s leaders have led a pushback against the law, with Louisiana Sen. Mary Landrieu advancing legislation to suspend the severe rate hikes for three years while FEMA studies its options.
Florida’s two senators are reluctant to jump into the fray.
Staffers for Sen. Bill Nelson, a Democrat, said he voted for Biggert-Waters last year because the flood program was about to expire and needed reforms to stay solvent. Last week, he was seeking additional information from FEMA on the impact to Florida.
“But the bottom line is this: Though the flood insurance program may not be actuarially sound, tens of thousands of Floridians rely on it for affordable coverage — and, keeping coverage affordable for those in need is an important part of the equation,” Nelson’s press secretary Ryan Brown said.
Republican Sen. Marco Rubio, who voted against the bill last year, said the flood program reminds him of Florida’s state-run Citizens Property Insurance: a government-run outfit that has to be financially restructured to become self-sustaining.
“I know eventually we’re going to have to reform this program. Whether we can afford to delay (rate hikes) three more years … is something I need to think about,” Rubio said in an interview with theTimes.
“I’d prefer for no rates to go up in Florida, but I’d also prefer for the flood insurance program to survive or some alternative to it survive. Otherwise you won’t be able to sell or buy property in Florida.”
It’s all about risk
In the history of the flood program, Florida property owners have paid $16.1 billion in premiums while collecting just $3.7 billion in claims, according to a 2011 analysis by the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton Center for Risk Management and Decision Processes.
Contrast that with Louisiana, which paid $4.4 billion in premiums but collected almost four times that in claims, the vast majority tied to Hurricane Katrina.
Since 1978, Texas ($5.5 billion), New Jersey ($4.8 billion) and New York ($4.4 billion) have also received more payouts than Florida, while paying far less in premiums. And those numbers predate last year’s Superstorm Sandy, which caused billions more in flood damage in the Northeast.
And year after year, Florida ponies up a third of all premiums into the program.
“Flood in Florida is a moneymaker” for the government, said Thompson of the Florida Association of Insurance Agents.
Elsewhere, property owners are required to buy flood insurance to cover potential catastrophes from rising rivers, lakes and streams. Storm surge from major hurricanes is the bigger flood concern in Florida.
But most of the hurricanes that have struck Florida in modern times, including the grand-daddy, Hurricane Andrew in 1992, were more windmakers than floodmakers. Of the nation’s top 10 flood-claim events since 1978, only one (Hurricane Ivan in 2004) caused heavy damage in Florida.
Why isn’t Florida a bigger recipient of flood insurance payouts given the amount in premiums paid? ”
Florida hasn’t been hit by a major hurricane in seven years. That has a lot to do with it,” said Dan Watson of FEMA.
Like any other insurance, flood premiums don’t reflect real-life events; they reflect risk. With its 1,200 miles of coastline, Florida is still considered more at risk than any other state.
Just one major, slow moving hurricane that hits a populated part of Florida’s coast could dramatically increase the state’s flood claims. And private insurers have been unwilling to provide flood coverage.
Sam Miller of the Florida Insurance Council said the state is much better off with the security blanket of the National Flood Insurance Program than if it were on its own for flood coverage, as it is for windstorm.
“Florida has all it can say grace over,” Miller said. “If you don’t have a (federal) flood program, I don’t know where the coverage would come from.”
Times staff writer Alex Leary contributed to this report. Jeff Harrington can be reached at email@example.com or (727) 893-8242.
By the numbers
Flood insurance premiums paid by Florida property owners since 1978 (though 2011)
Total flood claims paid to Florida policyholders since 1978
Approximate amount of flood insurance premiums paid by Louisiana policyholders since 1978
Flood claims paid to
Louisiana property owners since 1978, mostly for Hurricane Katrina.
Total Florida flood policies, roughly 40 percent of all policies nationwide
Annual rate hike in flood insurance premiums starting this year for business or residential policyholders in older, flood-prone properties that are investor-owned or have experienced severe or repeat flooding
Federal flood insurance policyholders in Florida who could face sharply higher rates, more than any other state.
Pinellas County’s ranking among counties across the nation with almost 51,000 affected properties, roughly an eighth of its homes and businesses
Sources: National Flood Insurance Program; University of Pennsylvania Wharton Center for Risk Management and Decision Processes; Times research.
Q&A | Rising flood insurance rates
Why are flood insurance rates rising?
To more accurately reflect the risk of flooding, the Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act passed last year calls for eliminating some artificially low rates and discounts.
Will everybody’s rates
go up sharply?
No. In fact, the biggest rate hikes focus on just 20 percent of flood policies, those covering older properties in low-lying areas (called a Special Flood Hazard Area, or SFHA) for which owners have been paying cheaper, subsidized rates. The affected properties date back to before Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM) were adopted in the 1970s and 1980s and are known in government lingo as “pre-FIRM” properties.
Some property owners could face 25 percent annual increases for several years?
• Owners of investment properties that have been subsidized with lower rates already started paying the higher rates on policy renewals after Jan. 1, 2013.
• A subsidized property that has experienced severe or repeated flooding will see the higher rates kick in Oct. 1.
• Owners of businesses and non-residential properties with subsidized rates will see the higher rates effective Oct. 1.
What if I live in my home
and currently benefit
from subsidized rates
on my flood policy?
If you continue to live in your home and don’t sell, you most likely will be able to keep the lower, subsidized rates.
However, you could face the higher rates if the property is sold, the policy lapses, you file severe or repeated flood losses, or a new policy is purchased.
How do I know if I get subsidized rates now?
Check with an insurance agent. But there are two main clues: Is the home in an “A” or “V” zone requiring flood insurance and is it at least a few decades old?
What if I have a subsidized policy in a flood hazard area and I sell my home
or business property?
The buyer of a subsidized property will have to pay the full risk rate for any policy issued or renewed on or after Oct. 1. That could more than triple the rates immediately. If you bought a subsidized property after the Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act became law a year ago, you could have to pay the full risk rate for a policy renewal starting in October.
Is there any other trigger
for a large rate increase?
Owners of older homes in low lying areas could face rate increases of up to 20 percent a year for five years if a community adopts a new flood insurance rate map as part of the program overhaul laid out in the Biggert-Waters act.
Can I do anything
to fight higher rates?
Check into obtaining an elevation certificate to show your particular property is sufficiently elevated. There is an initial cost, but it may help reduce your rate. Review your flood zone maps to see your property’s current flood risk and how close it is to a potential change in risk status if a new map is adopted.
And don’t let your policy lapse, which could be a trigger for a big rate increase.
Where can I find more details?
Go to floodsmart.gov. Or contact your insurance agent.
Jeff Harrington, Times staff writer