PC360 decided to take a look at the oldest insurers in the United States—a journey that has led to some interesting findings about the birth of insurance in this country. In the mid-18th century, Benjamin Franklin and fellow firefighters founded what is said to be the first, lasting insurance company under the mutual principle “whereby every man might help another without any disservice to himself,” he said. There was another short-lived company in the U.S. (before it was the U.S., of course) prior to Franklin’s start-up. The Friendly Society for Mutual Insurance of Houses Against Fire was founded in Charles Towne (now Charleston), S.C. in 1736. It was bankrupted by the Great
Fire of 1740, which destroyed more than 300 buildings. So Philadelphia Contributionship starts off our list of the oldest… Philadelphia Contributionship Founded in 1752 by Benjamin Franklin, The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, a mutual insurance company, first focused on fire prevention in the brick-and-stone city of about 15,000 people and eight volunteer fire companies. Besides running the Pennsylvania Gazette and publishing Poor Richard’s Almanac, Franklin also organized Philadelphia’s Union Fire Company. The insurer elected directors in April 1752 and by June, seven-year, renewable-term polices were written for structures. The company sent surveyors out to a building. The directors reviewed the report and set the rate. Houses not built to legal specifications were denied insurance. Houses with trees in front of them were denied because early hoses could not get around them. In 1753, a house on Water Street became the first insured property to burn. In the Gazette, Franklin reported that the damages were to be immediately repaired without cost to the owner. CIGNA The current company (in 1981 Connecticut General Corporation and INA Corp. merged to form CIGNA) got its start when a group of prominent citizens in Philadelphia in 1792 founded the Insurance Company of North America (INA), the first marine insurance company in the U.S. and the nation’s oldest working stockholder-owned insurer. The insurer’s first policies covered the hull and cargo of the ship “America” on a voyage from Philadelphia to Londonderry, Northern Ireland. INA issued its first life insurance policy in 1794 to a sea captain against death during a voyage. The company’s first brush with a major catastrophe was in 1871, when the Great Chicago Fire destroyed 2,000 acres of land and left 100,000 people homeless within two days. The INA paid all of its claims, amounting to $650,000, in full. In 1865 the Connecticut General Life Insurance Company was incorporated. Baltimore Equitable Baltimore Equitable was actually the second insurer in Maryland. The first, the Maryland Fire Insurance Co., was incorporated in 1787 but it was short-lived. Residents met to create a fire company at the start of 1794 (George Washington was president) and soon thereafter, the Baltimore Equitable Society for Insuring Houses from Loss by Fire. The first policy was written in April. By the end of the company’s first year, 104 policies had been written for a total coverage of $129,016. The insurer’s second year saw its first loss—two brick houses at Light and Baltimore streets that also consumed neighboring businesses, homes and a church. Mutual Assurance “We’ve been through everything that’s happened,” says Gerald Roach, president of Mutual Assurance Society of Virginia, founded in December 1794. During the Civil War, Richmond, Va., the Confederate capital, burned and caused an evacuation of military forces from the city. At the time, the building’s policies excluded war losses, so Richmond—along with the company—had to re-build by assessing and restoring investment funds. According to the Library of Virginia, “Rates of hazard were determined by the material composition of the buildings, by the uses to which the buildings were put, and by what may be kept in them. Mills, playhouses, liveries, and buildings containing machinery propelled by steam or in which combustible articles were stored could be insured only by special contract. Revaluations of insured property were required every seven years or whenever additions were made to a policy.”
Southern Mutual was chartered on December 29, 1847 and has called Athens, Ga. home since 1847. The insurer was founded by a group who saw the need for fire coverage for those outside the larger metropolitan areas. The company is now affiliated with the Donegal Insurance Group. OLDEST AGENCIES Gilmore & Skole The seed of this Greenfield, Mass. agency was planted in 1819. It is the oldest independent agency in the U.S. Gilmore & Skole was founded long ago as the Franklin Ripley Agency. That year, Franklin Ripley countersigned an Aetna policy for $2,000 insuring “certain goods, wares and merchandise” in a store belonging to Franklin and Jerom Ripley. Ripley handwrote this policy as his own responsibility, without home office authorization. It is said to be the first policy ever issued by an agent in this manner. Hickok & Boardman Founded in 1821, Hickok & Boardman Insurance is the oldest and one of the largest retail insurance agencies in Vermont. The origins of the agency go back to 1821 when Aetna Insurance Co. was searching for representation in Vermont. It was at this time that Aetna signed a contract with William Follet of Griswold & Follet, which marked the beginning of what is now known as Hickok & Boardman, Inc. Julius Hickok joined one of the early founders in 1888. In the early 1920s, I. Munn Boardman was working as a chauffeur for Henry Hickok (son of Julius) while Boardman worked his way through college. Upon graduating, the agency and became a partner a few years later.